Dataseries and components

Dataseries and components

Stations and sampling

Írafoss in Grímsnes:
Daily samples of precipitation, atmosphere and aerosol for sulphur and salinity measurements

IMO, measurement field of the Icelandic Meteorological Office at Bústaðavegur:
Weekly samples of precipitation to measure heavy metals
Monthly samples of precipitation for sulphur and salinity measurements
Monthly samples of precipitation for radioactivity research at IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency

Litla-Skarð in Borgarfjörður:
Monthly samples of precipitation due to ecological research in co-operation with the Agricultural University of Iceland and other institutions

Svartárkot, earlier Hveravellir, (highland stations) and Rjúpnahæð (suburban):
Monthly samples of precipitation for isotope research by the Science Institute of the University of Iceland

Rjúpnahæð, Írafoss and Reykjavík (measurement field of IMO):
Monthly samples of precipitation for the Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute for measurements of radioactivity

Stórhöfði in the Westman Islands:
Weekly samples of precipitation to measure heavy metals
Semi-monthly samples of aerosols to measure heavy metals

Stórhöfði in the Westman Islands:
Semi-monthly samples of air and precipitation for analysis of persistent organic pollutants

Analysed components - IMO's research:

Sulphur and salinity measurements:
Precipitation: SO4-S, NO3-N, Cl, Na, Mg, K, Ca (mg/l)
Precipitation: conductivity (µS/cm), quantity (mm), pH
Aerosol: SO4-S, Cl, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe (µg/m3)
Air: SO2-S (µg/m3)

Heavy metals in precipitation:
Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, V, As, Al (ng/ml)
Cl, NO3-N, SO4-S, Na, K, Ca, Mg, NH4-N, Br, F (µg/ml)
conductivity (µS/cm), quantity (mm), pH

Heavy metals in aerosol:
Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, V, As, Al (ng/m3)
Cl, NO3-N, SO4-S (µg/m3)
Hg (pg/m3)

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs),
same for precipitation (ng/l) and air (pg/m3):

alfa-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH
cis-chlordan, trans-chlordan, trans-nonachlor,
PCB-28, -31, -52, -101, -105, -118, -138, -153, -156, -180
toxafen-26, -50, -62
BDE-47, -99, -100

Stórhöfði in the Westman Islands - foreign research:

Continuous measurements of surface ozone.

Ambient air: Instantaneous samples weekly using ~2 litre glass containers for atmospheric CO2, CH4, CO, H2, SF6 and N2O, as well as the C13 and O18 isotopes in carbondioxide and the C13 isotope in methane. For quality, a pair of identical samples are taken each time. Both are fully analysed to check for congruity.

Ambient air pumped for an hour into a ~10 litre aluminium container, thereby collecting a compressed sample of great volume, done weekly or semi-monthly depending on season. Various components are analysed, investigating the stability of atmospheric composition.

Twenty-four-hour samples of airborne particles blown from the sea; these measurements allow organic sulphur emissions from local off-shore algae to be assessed. Selective anemometer excludes northerly wind directions (inland) by shutting down the pump temporarily, activating it again when the wind direction changes. Recently, their interest has shifted to dust-storms off the mainland coast, i.e. the glacial outwash plains. Hence, the inland wind directions are sampled also.

Passive sampling: Special sponges (PUF) protected from direct rain and sunlight aired for a year (one series) or three months (another series) without pulling air through (no pump). Alternative research for the assessment of persistent organic pollutants.

lighthouse and islands
Stórhöfði in Vestmannaeyjar: lighthouse built a century ago. Now an important station of weather measurements, bird-tagging and pollution measurements. Photo: Elvar Ástráðsson.

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